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 Concorde Technical Specs

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PostSubject: Concorde Technical Specs   Mon May 10, 2010 11:58 pm

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Production Concorde Dimensions


Overall Length

202' 4" (61.66m)
Length from nose to cockpit

24' 0" (7.31m)
Height from ground
(ground to top of fin)

40' 0" (12.2m)
Height from lowest point (Engine)

28' 8" (8.9m)
Fuselage max external Width

9' 5" (2.88m)
Fuselage max internal Width

103.4" (2.63m)
Fuselage max external Height

10' 10" (3.32m)
Fuselage max internal Height

77" (1.96m)
Fuselage length
(flight deck door
to rear bulkhead)

129' (39.32m)
Wing Span

83' 10" (25.6m)
Wing Length (Root Chord)

90' 9" (27.66m)
Wing Area

3,856 sq. ft (358.25 sq. mtrs)
Elevon Area (Each side)

172.2 sq. ft (16 sq. mtrs)
Main Gear Track

25' 4" (7.7m)
Tail Fin Height

37' 1" (11.32m)
Tail Fin length (Root Chord)

34' 8" (10.58m)
Tail Fin area

365sq. ft (33.91 sq. mtrs)
Rudder area

112sq. ft (10.41 sq. mtrs)

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Prototype Aircraft 001 & 002 Dimensions


Overall Length

51.80m
Fuselage max external Width

2.88m (9' 5")
Fuselage max internal Width

2.63m (103.4")
Fuselage max external Height

3.32m (10' 10")
Fuselage max internal Height

1.96m (77")
Fuselage length
(flight deck door
to rear bulkhead)

39.39m (129')
Wing Span

23.80m (83' 10")



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Pre-Production Aircraft 01 (G-AXDN) Dimensions



Overall Length

60.10m
Fuselage max external Width

2.88m (9' 5")
Fuselage max internal Width

2.63m (103.4")
Fuselage max external Height

3.32m (10' 10")
Fuselage max internal Height

1.96m (77")
Fuselage length
(flight deck door
to rear bulkhead)

39.39m (129')


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PostSubject: Re: Concorde Technical Specs   Mon May 10, 2010 11:59 pm

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Airspeed, and Altitude Limits
Maximum Operating Cruise Speed
Mach 2.04 (around 1350MPH)
Maximum Permissible Range
4500 Miles (3900 Naut' Miles)
Average Take-off speed
250MPH
Average Landing speed
185MPH
Maximum landing gear speed
270Kts (Mach 0.7)
Maximum operating altitude
60,000Ft
Normal type pressure
230 PSI
Maximum visor down speed
325Kts (Mach 0.8)
Maximum nose down (5 degrees) speed
325Kts (Mach 0.8)
Maximum nose down (12.5 degrees) speed
270 Kts (Mach 0.7) below 20,000ft
Maximum speed for landing light extention
270 Kts
Maximum fuel jettison speed
Mach 0.93
Maximum speed for windscreenwiper operation
325Kts (Mach 0.8)
Maximum positive incidence (angle of attack)
16.5 Degrees
Maximum negative incidence (angle of attack)
-5.5 Degrees (Above Mach 1.0)
Temperature and pressure limits
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MaximumTotal Temperatire (TMO)
127 Degrees Celcius (on nose)
Maximum Oil temp for start and takeoff
125 Degrees Celcius
Maximum Oil temp for takeoff and 5min transient
195 Degrees Celcius
Maximum Oil temp Continuous operation
190 Degrees Celcius
Minimum Oil temp for starting
-35 Degrees Celcius
Minimum Oil temp for advance above idle
-20 Degrees Celcius
Minimum Oil Pressure for contiunued operation
5 PSI
Minimum Oil Pressure for take off
10 PSI
Minimum Fuel temp for start up
-40 Degrees Celcius
Minimum Fuel temp for advance above idle
-40 Degrees Celcius
Maximum Fuel temp for contiunued operation
50 Degrees Celcius
Maximum Fuel pressure at Engine inlet
20 PSIA
Maximum Fuel pressure at Engine inlet
7 PSI

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PostSubject: Re: Concorde Technical Specs   Tue May 11, 2010 12:00 am

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Concorde Weights


Max Weight Without Fuel (Zero fuel weight)
203,000 lbs (92,080 kgs)
Operating Weight Empty
173,500 lbs (78,700 kgs)
Max Payload
29,500 lbs (13,380 kgs)
Max Take Off Weight
408,000 lbs (185,000 kgs)
Max taxing Weight
412,000 lbs (186,880 kgs)
Max Landing Weight
245,000 lbs (111,130 kgs)
Max Weight of Fuel
26,400 gallons <=>95,680 kgs
Max baggage weight (under floor hold : forward of
door)
2,194 lbs (995 kgs)
Max baggage weight (under floor hold : aft of door)
1,290 lbs (585 kgs)
Max baggage weight (Rear Hold : Lashed)
6,100 lbs (2,767 kgs)


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PostSubject: Re: Concorde Technical Specs   Tue May 11, 2010 12:00 am

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Concorde Passenger and Crew Accomodation


Maxium number of Passengers
(certified)
128
Normal number of Passengers
(with current cabin
layouts)
100 (British Airways)
92 (Air France)
Normal Flight Crew
3
(Captain, Co -pilot & Flight Engineer)
Max Flight Crew
5
(Captain, Co -pilot, Flight Engineer
& 2 Observers)
Maximum Flight Attendants
6
Escape exits with Slides
6
(2 main front, 2 over wing center and 2 over wing rear)
Passenger Toilet facilities
3 (1 front, 2 center)

Crew Galley facilities
2 (1 front, 1 main rear)


Passenger Info displays
2 (1 front cabin, 1 rear cabin)
Display :
Mach No. , Air speed, Outside Temp & Distance to go


BAGGAGE HOLDS


Combined Volume
20.3 Cubic Meters (697 cu ft)
Forward hold Length
6.25 Meters (20' 6")

Forward hold Volume
6.71 Cubic Meters (227 cu ft)

Rear hold Length
4.16 Meters (13' 8")

Rear hold Volume
13.32 Cubic Meters (470 cu ft)






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PostSubject: Re: Concorde Technical Specs   Tue May 11, 2010 12:11 am

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Powerplant Specifications
Engine Model
Olympus 593 Mrk610 turbojet

Engine Manufacturer
Rolls-Royce/SNECMA

Number fitted
Four

Maximum thrust produced at take off, per engine
38,050 lbs (170 KN) (with afterburner reheat in operation)

Maximum thrust produced during supersonic cruse, per engine
10,000 lbs

Reheat contribution to performance
20% at full thurust during take-off

Fuel Type
A1 Jet fuel
Fuel Capacity
26,400 gallons /119,500 ltrs / 95,680 kgs

Fuel Consumption (at Idle Power)
1100 kgs/hr (302 Gallons/hr)

Fuel Consumption (at Full Power)
10500 kgs/hr (2885 Gallons/hr)

Fuel Consumption (at Full Re-heated power)
22500 kgs/hr (6180 Gallons/hr)


Typical miles to the gallon per passenger
17 Miles!


No of Production versions supplied to airlines
67 (63 remain in use)





The Rolls-Royce/Snecma Olympus engines that are fitted to Concorde are a
highly developed version of the Bristol-Siddeley Olympus that was
fitted to the Vulcan bomber, which generated 11,000Lbs of thrust.
Roll-Royce provided the development of the Olympus engines while SNECMA
developed the exhaust and reheat system. On the prototypes this
powerplant system was upgraded to generate 33,000Lbs of thrust and by
the time it was fitted to the production aircraft, 38,050Lbs were
available.

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The Olympus engines are 2 spool engines. The inner shaft revolves
within the outer shaft. The engine consists of 14 compressor stages, 7
on each shaft, driven by their respective turbine systems. At supersonic
speeds when the air approaches the combustion chamber is is very hot
due to the high level of compression of 80:1.



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The darker (black areas) are the areas more
susceptible to heat and are thus constructed out of the nickel-alloy.



To protect the later compression stages the last 4 stages are
constructed of a nickel-bassed alloy, the nickel alloy is usually
reserved only for the turbine area. The speed or RPM of the engine's
outer shaft is controlled by the amount of fuel being burnt. By varying
the surface area of the primary nozzel, the inner shaft RPM on the
inner shaft can be controlled relative to the outer shaft RMP


Concorde is the only civil airliner in service with a 'military style'
afterburner system installed to produce more power at key stages of the
flight. The reheat system, as it is officially known, injects fuel into
the exhaust, and provides 6,000Lb of the total available thrust per
engine at take off. This hotter faster exhaust that is used on take off
and is what is mainly responsible for the additional noise that
Concorde makes. The reheats are turned off shortly after take off when
Concorde reaches the noise abatement area.


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The reheats are turned back on, by the piano switches behind the thrust
leavers, for around 10 minutes once the aircraft is clear of land, to
push the aircraft through Mach1 and on to Mach1.7 where they are no
longer required.

The Aircraft has an electrically controlled throttle
system that is
used to control the power delivered from the engines.
Moving the
throttle leavers asks the computer to apply the power to the
engines
in a correct and controlled manner. Through throttle master
controls on the overhead panel, each engine can be either connected to
the
throttle lever (main) to an alternate controller or not controlled
at
all.


The engines also have ratings where they can be
selected to different
power or rating settings for different parts
of the flight. eg take off
or cruise. A contingency setting is
available for use during engine
failure and more power that normal
is required from the remaining
engines


There are two
auto-throttles systems fitted to the aircraft that are
associated
with the autopilot systems. Each engine can be manually
disconnected
from the auto-throttle system if required. The Autopilot
and auto
throttle system will be described in another section of the
site.

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The pictures above
show a Rolls-Royce Olympus Engine displayed during the 2000 Farnborough
Air Show, only days after the Paris Concorde crash. Looking on from the
rear in the last photo, the afterburner (reheat) system can be clearly
seen, it is the smaller ring structure situated inside the engine casing
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At Rolls-Royce in the
1970's, a new engine is being prepared for shipping to the Concorde
production line in Bristol




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AIR FLOW and INTAKES




To further improve engine system performance, the air
flow through the engine area is changed at different speeds via a
variable geometry intake control system. Altering this airflow changes
the amount of air available to the engine and the amount of air that in
itself is producing thrust via the complex ramp and nozzle assemblies.



The air intake ramp assemblies main job is to slow down the air being
received at the engine face to subsonic speeds before it then enters the
engines. At supersonic speeds the engine would be unstable if the air
being feed to it was also at a supersonic speed so it is slowed down
before it gets there.


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Subsonic Speeds (take off/subsonic cruise)



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At take off the engines need maximum airflow,
therefore the ramps are fully retracted and the auxiliary inlet vane is
wide open. This vane is held open aerodynamically. The auxiliary inlet
begins to close as the Mach number builds and it completely closed by
the time the aircraft reaches Mach 0.93.




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Shortly after take off the aircraft enters the noise
abatement procedure where the re-heats are turned off and the power is
reduced. The secondarry nozzles are opened further to allow more air to
enter, therefore quietening down the exhaust. The Secondary air doors
also open at this stage to allow air to by pass the engine.


At slow speeds all the air into the engine is primary airflow and the
secondary air doors are kept closed. Keeping them closed also prevents
the engine ingesting any of its own exhaust gas.
At around Mach 0.55 the Secondary exhaust buckets begin to open as a
function of Mach number to be fully open when the aircraft is at M1.1


The ramps begin move into position at mach 1.3 which shock wave start to
form on the intakes.


At take off and during subsonic flight, 82% of the thrust is developed
by the engine alone with 6% from the nozzles and 21% from the intakes


Supersonic Speeds (Supersonic cruise)


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At the supersonic cruse speed of mach 2.0 the ramps have moved over half
their amount of available travel, slowing down the air by producing a
supersonic shockwave (yellow lines) at the engine intake lip.


When the throttles are brought back to start the decent the spill door
is opened to dump out excess air that is no longer needed by the engine,
this allows the ramp to go down to their maximum level of travel. As
the speed is lowered the spill doors are closed and the ramps begin to
move back so by M1.3 are again fully retracted.


The ramps can continue in operation till Mach 0.7, should an engine have
had to have been shut down.


During the Supersonic cruse only 8% of the power is derived by the
engine with the other 29% being from Nozzles and an impressive 63% from
the intakes.


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Should an engine fail and need to be shut down during
supersonic cruise, the ramps move fully down and the spill door opens
to dump out exess air that is no longer required by the failed engine.
The procedure lessens the chances of surges on the engine.


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After touch down the engines move to reverse power
mode. The main effect of this is that the secondarry nozzle buckets
move to the closed position directing airflow forwards to slow the
aircraft down.



The dual air intakes ramps are controlled by 8 Air Intake Control Units
(AICU), 2 for each engine intake - Lane A and Lane B. The AICU's are
the brains of the whole system, and a great deal the development work
on the Concorde design was taken up in perfecting this very important
system, that makes supersonic cruise both achievable and affordable by
constantly changing the positions of the ramps in respect to changes in
airflow, air temperature, engine power and aircraft incidence. 7 out of
the 8 control units need to be in working order otherwise supersonic
flight can't continue.


Data such as true and indicated pressure along with the aircrafts level
of incidence are feed to the AICU's via the Air intake sensor units.
The sensor units essentially take the data from the relevant sensors on
the aircraft such as the staic and Pitot sensors in analogue form and
convert them to a digital data stream that can be processed by the
AICU's. Sensors also feed directly to the AICU's the pressure and
current positions of the ramps so that they can alter them as conditions
dictate. It all seems very simply in today's digital world but for the
1970's the system was way ahead of its time..


The flight engineer has 2 main panels that allow him to monitor both the
status of the air intake processing and also the actual positions of
the ramps. Click the panels for a larger version in a new window

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The Air Intake Management Panel shows what lanes are being used to
control the intakes, what hydraulic system is being used along with
providing other feed back for any errors that may occur on the sensing
or control systems. The guarded switches at the bottom allow control to
be given to the inching switches on the Manual Control Panel. The Vane
indicator shows the position of the Intake Aux Inlets. Either open,
closed or in-travel as shown by the cross hatch in this picture.


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The 2nd panel, the Manual control panel, provides
feedback of the positions of both the ramps and spill doors that are on
the individual intakes. Additionally it provides direct manual control
of the ramp positions should the Control units fail.




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Former Concorde Test Pilot Peter Baker has supplied
me with the following detailed schemaitc block diagram of the final
intake control systems that were fitted to the production standard
Concordes and how they are controlled. Click on the picture to see
it full size in a new window.


.......and finally - ENGINE 4!


Although the same as all the other 3 engines, the starboard outer engine
needs to be treated in a different manner at slow airspeeds compared to
the other 3. In fact the procedures related to what is done were not
fully developed until Concorde was just going into passenger service in
January 1976.


The main issue is that at slow airspeeds the engine suffers vibrations
on the low pressure compressor blades from air vortices, that are
created by the wing leading edge sections, entering it from both the air
intake and fully open AUX inlet door that moving in an anti-clockwise
direction, which is the opposite direction to the engine's direction of
rotation. The effect is not seen on engine No1, as the vortices travel
in the same direction as the aircraft.


2 solutions were adopted to smooth the airflow reaching the engine:

    The No4 engine is limited on take off to 88% N1 at speeds below 60
    Knots. A solenoid latched switch on the Flight engineers panel
    accomplished this task, and is automatically released by a signal from
    the Air Data Computer to enable the N1 to rise back to the normal 97-99%
    level when the aircraft is above the 60knot threshold.


    For air entering via the AUX inlet vane a remedy was found that to
    limited the opening of this vane by about 4 degrees, compared to the
    other 3 engines, reduced the buffeting to a tolerable level.

If you stand underneath or behind Concorde during take off (with your
Fingers in your ears!) look and it can be clearly seen that the no4 AUX
inlet vane is not as open as the other three. The reheat flame on
engine 4 is also not as bright or stable as the other three during the
initial take off roll, until the aircraft is around 60knts when it
matches the others.

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PostSubject: Re: Concorde Technical Specs   Tue May 11, 2010 12:12 am

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Roll your mouse over the picture to find out what the different areas
are


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Picture is of Concorde cockpit mock up at the Bristol
Industrial Museum


More Detailed information will be added shortly, for more in-depth
pictures please see the virtual
cockpit tour
or
for a detailed description of the Automatic flight Control Systems go to
the Autopilot page


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PostSubject: Re: Concorde Technical Specs   Tue May 11, 2010 12:13 am

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Concorde has an Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) installed, that
for the
1970s was state of the art.

The system is designed to allow "hands off" control of the aircraft
from climb
out to landing. There are 2 mains parts to the system; the
Autothrottles and
Autopilot, and a number of associated systems, such as the warning
displays
and test systems.




The majority of the controls for the AFCS are situated on the
glareshield and
are shown below in the picture. This is from Air France Concorde
F-BTSD, but
the British Airways Concordes have the exact same system. Roll the
mouse of
the picture to define the various control areas (coming soon).


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The central area is the area we are most concerned with, as this
is where
we actually set up the Automatic Flight Control regimes.
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The top row of the panel can be split into 3 sections to select
different autothrottle
and horizontal or vertical autopilot modes. The lower row allows the
headings
to
be set into the system, as well as height and speed "to fly to"
settings.
It also includes six "piano switches" that can select in or out in the
autothrottles,
autopilot and flight director systems as required.



The flight director provides a visual indication on the pilot's Attitude
Direction
Indicator (ADI - Artificial Horizon) what the autopilot would want to
do if
it were flying the aircraft under the current settings. The Flight
Director
(FD) is used when the pilot wants to hand fly the aircraft, but be
guided by
the autopilot. It displays 2 yellow command bars and an attitude
display on
the ADI, that the pilot would match with the aircraft's movements.


AUTOTHROTTLES


The Autothrottle system provides electronic thrust control of the
engines, to ensure certain speeds can be held during cruise and approach
flying. Each engine can be switched to 3 control modes: Main,
Alternate and OFF! A facility is also provided to disconnect the
autothrottle for one engine at a time during abnormal operations.

As the throttles are not mechanically, but
electrically connected,
a main and standby channel are both engaged, with the main channel
being given
priority.

If the Autothrottle system detects a fault it
will automatically
disengage and hold a constant throttle settings. The autothrottles can
also
be "primed" to
come into operation when a certain parameter is meet, eg the aircraft
is required
to level out at a certain height



The primary control of the autothrottle system's settings are through
the controls
available on the left quarter of the glareshield panel and a datum
adjust unit
on the centre pedestal.



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There are 3 main Autothrottle modes:
MACH HOLD - This will ensure the engines are automatically
throttled to
maintain the current mach number being followed when this mode was
engaged. This
is using during cruise, as it will maintain the correct mach number no
matter
what
the
outside
conditions
are that effect mach number, such as temperature.
IAS HOLD - This the the mode that the throttles will selected to
first, and will hold the Indicated Air Speed (IAS) that the aircraft was
flying at when they were engaged
IAS ACQ - The 3rd mode will allow the aircraft to fly or aquire
to a
set air speed. Eg on approach the aircraft could be flying at 250 knots,
with
the next speed being 210 knots. This can be dialled in and then, when
requested
to 210 knots by ATC, the model selected. When 210 knots is achieved, the
mode
will revert to IAS HOLD.
The dual systems are selected on by the piano switches, only one is
used, with the other acts as a back up. Disconnects are also available
on the outside of the main throttle leavers.
On the datum adjust unit, on the centre pedestal, The speed can be
tweaked if required.



AUTOPILOT




Concorde is fitted with 2 Autopilot systems. Only one is engaged at a
time to
operate the aircraft and the 2nd is available as a hot spare. Both
system are
engaged if the aircraft is carrying out an AutoLand, with the 2nd
system automatically
available should the primary one fail. The autopilot has 5 horizontal
and 12
vertical modes of operations. Also on
the
panel is
the
commonly
used
altitude to fly to setting, which is used for the majority of the
flying, after
the initial take off.


The Autoland system on Concorde is very sophisticated and can land the
aircraft
better than the pilot on many occasions! It uses the Airport
Instrument landing
System's (ILS) Glideslope and Localiser to guide the aircraft to the
touchdown
point. Just before landing, data form the radio altimeters is feed
into the
AFCS to
flare and land the aircraft. The pilot, does however, have to stop the
aircraft.


Similar to the Autothrottles, there are 2 piano switches that engage the
Autopilot.
These are solenoid latched and will only latch if all the supporting
systems
are functioning correctly; such as the Air Data Computers,
Autostabilisation
systems, navigation and compasses. The system will always engage in
the heading
and pitch hold modes, and can be easily disconnected from a thumb
switch on
the Yoke.






AUTOPILOT HORIZONTAL MODES
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INS - This mode causes the aircraft to track
between
two waypoints that are being fed to it from the external Inertial
Navigation
System (INS)




TRK HDG - Track or Heading. The selector dial on the bottom row
is either
pulled for Heading mode or pushed for Track mode, and the aircraft will
follows
the Track or Heading selected on the dial. A heading will follow a
compass direction,
where as a Track will follow a direct route to the selected position
taking
into account wind speeds etc..



HDG HOLD - This is the basic autopilot mode and will cause the
aircraft
to follow the heading it was flying when it was engaged.


VOR LOC - When this is pressed it causes
the aircraft
to turn and track the selected VOR beacon or localiser that has been
selected.
The is a Prime mode
and a small triangle under the button will light up when the capturing
is in
progress. Once the beacon or localiser has been acquired the button
will light.


BACK BEAM - Technically this is not a Autopilot mode, but a
Flight Director mode and will only operate when the Autopilot is
disengaged. It permits tracking of a Back Beam localiser
AUTOPILOT VERTICAL MODES
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PITCH HOLD - This is the basic mode of the autopilot and will
hold the
existing aircraft pitch when engaged. It comes on as default when the
Autopilot
is engaged.


MACH HOLD - This function will hold the current Mach number by
pitch changes and not throttles changes. If the autothrottles are
engaged they will take precedence and the autopilot will default to
PITCH HOLD



MAX CLIMB - This is selected at or near Vmo (Maximum operating
speed)
and will hold the airspeed to a figure around Vmo. As the speeds
approached Vmo
at the top of the climb it will disengage and hold the speed with pitch
changes.




MAX CRUISE - This engages shortly after Mach2 and is an extension
of MAX CLIMB. It is normally used in conjunction with the autothrottles
primed in MACH HOLD to keep he aircraft flying at Mach2.0.
If the aircraft begins to overspeed, due to temperature changes, the
auto throttles
will slow the aircraft down. Once back at the correct speed MACH HOLD
will disengage
and MAX CRUSE will re-engage. It also prevents the aircraft exceeding
the maximum
operating temperature (Tmo) of 127 degrees Celsius on the tip of the
nose.



IAS HOLD - Holds the current indicated airspeeds by means of
pitch changes



ALT HOLD - Holds the aircraft existing altitude.


VERT SPEED - Sets up the aircraft to hold a vertical speed as set
up on the vertical rate of climb indicator



ALT ACQ - Similar to IAS ACQ on the autothrottles. A preset
altitude
to fly to can be programmed in on the selector, and when the ALT ACQ
Button pressed
the aircraft will fly to that altitude. the prime light will light
during the
operation and the button will itself light when the speed is acquired.

TURB - Turbulence mode, only used in
moderate or severe turbulence. It holds the existing pitch attitude and
heading, it reduces the trim rate of the electric trim system to
smoothen the ride.







LAND - Automatic landing mode. When this is pressed the prime
triangle
will light. It causes the aircraft to capture the glideslope AND and
track to
localiser that has been selected. When the glideslope has been captured
the button
will light and the small triangle prime light under the button will go
out. The
VOR/LOC button will light when the localiser has been captured. During
the capture
process
the
prime light on VOR LOC will light. After LAND mode is selected the 2nd
autopilot
can be engaged for redundancy.



GO AROUND - Indicates an automatic go around has been initiated.
This
is carreid out when more than 2 of the throttle leavers are moved fully
forward
in LAND or GLIDE Modes. It will pitch the aircraft up at 15 degrees and
hold
the wings level until the next command is made by the crew.


GLIDE - This is used when expected that the pilot will not
carry out an automatic landing and simply wants the aircraft to
automatically
fly
the
path
down
to the runway, where he will take over for a manual landing


When this is pressed it caused the aircraft to capture the glideslope
AND and
track the selected VOR beacon or localiser that has been selected. The
Prime
light (triangle)will lit when engaded and the will go out, when the
when the
glideslope has been captured and button will light. The VOR/LOC mode
is also
selected when this is pressed. Its prime triangle will light up once
the beacon
or localiser has been acquired.




ADDITIONAL AFCS COMPONENTS


The additional features of Attitude Direction
Indicator
(ADI)
are
a key part of the system:




It feedsback information from the flight directors, and warnings to the
pilot
of a failure in parts of the AFCS.

As this is one of the pilot's primary flying
instruments,
he can see instantly what the fault is. eg a Flight director
malfunction
or a warning that the radio altimeter data is suspect etc....


A switch is available to select from which flight director, information
is fed
into the ADI.
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Datum Adjust Unit
Depending on the mode, a small adjustment to the settings on the AFCS
configuration can be made manually.
The parameters that can be adjusted are:


  • Autothrottle speed setting (+/- 22knots or +/- 0.06 Mach)


  • Autopilot turn - this will turn the aircraft at a roll rate of 5
    degrees per Second. This in HDG/TRK mode will cause a revision in the
    basic heading mode.


  • Pitch datum adjust - Various settings depending on Mode, eg ALT
    HOLD, or MACH HOLD
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Warning and Landing Display





  • AP / AT - Red lights will light / flash if the Autopilot of
    Autothrottle
    system is no longer functioning correctly
  • DH - Decision height warning will light when under the set
    height
  • LAND 2 and LAND 3 light - These will be green if the AFCS
    is working,
    and available to support an automatic landing in CAT2 or CAT3
    conditions
  • Aircraft Deviation Lights - white bars either side of the
    amber aircraft
    will light to show the aircraft is veering off the glide slope or
    localiser.
    It would be expected that the AFCS would automatically correct for
    this
    deviation and these would go out.
  • A test button tests all the lamps in this panel


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Diagrams and specific infomation based on "Flying Concorde" by Brian
Calvert
and
the Concorde Flying Manual.

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PostSubject: Re: Concorde Technical Specs   Tue May 11, 2010 12:15 am

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Concorde was one of the first fly-by-wire aircraft in the world. With
fly-by-wire, the aircraft is controlled by means of electrical signals
that are sent to the hydraulically actuated flight controls which
consist of:
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Three elevons on each wing, that control roll and pitch

A two-piece rudder that controls yaw



Each of these eight flight control surfaces is independently controlled
by a Powered Flying Control Unit (PFCU). The PFCU is actuated by an
electro-hydraulic twin-ram servo system with either the blue or green or
the yellow standby hydraulics powering either of the rams.

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The PFCU's (show above) end stops allow the inner elevons a9 degrees
of travel up or down and the outer/middle elevons can travel 23.5
degrees up
or
down.
The end stops on the rudder allow a travel range of 30 degrees in
either direction.
ThThe actual
travel limits, that are controlled by the fly-by-wire mixing unit, are
a little
less that these mechanical maximums.



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When the elevons
move together in the upwards direction, they cause the aircraft to pitch
up, similarly when they move together in the downwards direction the
aircraft will pitch down.
When the elevons
are deflected differentially they provide roll control, and behave in a
similar way to a traditional aircraft's ailerons.
Combining the
two types of elevon deflection simultaneously controls the pitch and
roll of the aircraft in flight.


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Hydraulic power to the PFCUs is provided by either
the Green or Blue main hydraulic system, selected from the servo control
panel on the flight deck, with the Yellow standby system available for
use if required in an emergency.


The Green, Blue and Yellow hydraulic systems are powered by
engine-driven pumps at a pressure of 4,000psi. The hydraulic system is
distributed across all 4 engines to offer complete redundancy.
The Green system is run from engines 1 and 2, the Blue system from
engines 3 and 4 and the standby Yellow system from engines 2 and 4.
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Two electrically driven pumps are available for
ground running,
and an emergency Ram Air Turbine (RAT) is stowed in an enclosure that
is part
of the inboard PFCU on the port wing for use when other means of
driving the
hydraulics have failed.

It can be deployed to drive the Green and Yellow
systems
when the aircraft is flying at subsonic speeds.

In the picture to the left it is seen here
depolyed on the
ground during servicing.



[You must be registered and logged in to see this image.]Conventional flight deck controls (yoke, pedals and trim
controls) send signals to 2 electrical channels (Green and Blue), and
via relay jacks to a 3rd standby mechanical channel. As fly-by-wire was
still in its infancy in the 70's, a mechanical system was still the
order of the day, unlike in today's Airbus aircraft where the whole
system is electrical. In Concorde, the mechanical system is not as a
matter of course connected to the PFCUs, but is automatically connected
should a double failure occur in the green or blue electrical systems.



Inputs from the flight controls are converted to electrical signals by
way of resolvers that directly control the PFCUs. In the mechanical
channel, the pitch and roll commands are mixed by a mechanical mixing
unit.


[You must be registered and logged in to see this image.]A monitoring system is fitted to each of the electrical
channels to monitor the flight control inverters, hydraulic systems and
operation of the servo and electrical control channels. On the flight
deck, a display in the centre panel shows the positions of the flight
control surfaces and also what electrical or mechanical channel is
currently being used to control them. Eight red warning lights are also
provided to draw attention to a failed system that needs crew attention.


When the autopilot is in operation, roll, pitch and yaw are directly
controlled by the autopilot computers. The relay jacks provide an input
to the system from the autopilot and also provide feedback to the
flight deck controls.


An artificial feel system that makes the aircraft feel to the pilot like
a conventionally controlled aircraft is also fitted. The system
increases the cockpit control stiffness, through jack springs, as a
function of the speed of the aircraft. On a traditionally controlled
aircraft the controls would be harder to operate when the deflection of
the control surfaces is increased at high speeds due to air resistance.
On Concorde, the artificial feel system re-instates this resistance
into the controls to make the aircraft handle as a traditional aircraft
would, as otherwise the flight control would just move to where they
were sent, with very little effort by the pilot, making it very easy to
over-control the aircraft.


Two auto-stabilization systems (main and spare) feed to the flight
control surfaces. This improves the stability of the aircraft during
flight and helps minimise the effects of any turbulence that could be
encountered. The systems also aid in controlling the aircraft should it
suffer an engine failure. The signals from the autostab computers
(unlike those from the autopilots) are sent directly to the PFCUs and no
feedback is provided to the pilots controls.


For the case where the cockpit flight controls become jammed between the
control columns and the relay jacks, an emergency control system is
fitted that, with the aid of strain gauges, measures the forces being
applied to the controls by the pilot against the jam and sends the
resulting signal directly into the electrical flight control channels.

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PostSubject: Re: Concorde Technical Specs   Tue May 11, 2010 12:17 am

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Concorde needs to be streamlined
for supersonic flight, with a very long pointed nose to reduce drag
and improved
aerodynamic efficency. During take off and Landing Concorde flies with
a very
high angle of attack (high nose angle) this was required due to the
way the
Concorde delta wing produces
lift at low speeds. At these low speeds with the high attack angles
the streamlined nose would prevent the pilots
seeing correctly during take-off and landing operations, so a unique
solution
had to be found.


The solution the engineers came up with was for Concorde to have a
drooping nose
that could be configured differently during the appropriate stages of
flight.
The aerodynamic loads and high temperatures at supersonic speeds also
required
a protective streamlined visor for the windscreens to be manufactures,
this
would also have to be re-positioned for take off and landing. The
Visor is
made out of special heat-resistant
glass and is slightly tinted, and the outside panels are hinged for
access.


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The nose and visor mechanisim is
hydraulically controlled
from the aircraft's green hydraluic system, and its movement
is initiated
from a four position locking lever on the front panel of the
cockpit,
next to the first officer.

The 'traffic lights' give the nose's status
during
operation. along with an electro-magnetic "barber-pole"
indicator.

A back up control is available on the centre
pedestal
that allows the nose and visor to be lowered using the yellow
hydraulic
systems if the green were to fail. The visor will be
hydraulically
retracted, but the nose will only be unlocked hydraulicaly,
with its
downward movement occuring under gravity or aerodynamic forces

A 3rd manual, uplock release, system
allows the nose
and visor to freefall (to the 5 degree positon) should the
yellow systems
also fail
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Droop nose
modes and operation

[You must be registered and logged in to see this image.]Position 1
Nose and Visor fully retracted in up position
Used during Supersonic cruise and when parked
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[You must be registered and logged in to see this image.]Position 2
Nose fully up, Visor retracted into droop nose
Used during short subsonic cruise (eg fly past) and windscreen
cleaning
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[You must be registered and logged in to see this image.]Position 3
Nose down at 5 degrees Visor retracted into droop nose
Used for take off and taxi
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[You must be registered and logged in to see this image.]Position 4
Nose down at 12.5 degrees up, Visor retracted into droop nose
Used for landings and taxi, although raised quickly to position 3 to
avert damage
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Mechanisms




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Droop Nose Jacks

(cylinders to the left)

Up Lock
(to the right)
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The nose is situated to the front of the forward
pressure bulkhead, but
is hinged roughly under the pilots seats. The nose moves on
carriages that
run on either side of the pressure bulkhead.

The nose is actuated by a pair of tandem hydraulic
jacks that work in parallel.
both jacks have their upper cylinders attached to the forward
pressure
bulkhead and their lower cylinders to the nose structure. The two
jacks provide
alternate
load bearing paths. A pair of up-locks engage in the up position
to secure
the nose to the bulkhead, allowing the hydraulic pressure to be
removed
from the jacks. When the nose is lowed hydraulic pressure keeps it
in place
and
stops aerodynamic forces acting on it and moving it.

Visor "A" frame

(top)

Visor Uplocks
(centre under A frame)

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The visor mechanism to contained within the droop
nose. The visor is carried
on two rails by carriages. It is raised and lowed by a hydraulic
jack
connected to the carriages by an A frame. The Visor, like the nose
has an
up-lock
fitted, but his held in the down position by hydraulic pressure.

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PostSubject: Re: Concorde Technical Specs   Tue May 11, 2010 12:17 am

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Concorde, like most airliners, has multiple fuel tanks whcih are
detailed below. The only difference is that during flight fuel is
transfered from tank to tank to maintain trim and balance of the
aircraft as it does not have a full tailplane which would be used on a
subsonic airliner to perform this task. Also for supersonic flight the
Center of Gravity is critial and required to be moved for different
speeds.



The fuel is also used as a heat sink for cooling
purposes. Surplus heat from the air conditioning and hydraulic systems
from the constant speed drive and generator and also from the engine
lubricating oil is rejected through heat exchangers to the fuel.




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Location of Concorde's fuel
tanks.






Function





Tank Number




Capacity (litres)





Quantity (kg)







Engine supply

1


2


3


4

5,300


5,770


5,770


5,300

4,198


4,570


4,570



4,198

Main
Storage
Tanks

5


6


7


8

9,090


14,630


9,350


16,210

7,200


11,587



7,405



12,838

Auxiliary Tanks

5A


7A

2,810

2,810

2,225

2,225

Transfer and Reserve Tanks

9


10


11

14, 010


15,080

13,150

11,096

11,943


10,415

Totals

119 ,280

94,470



Center of Gravity and Fuel Transfer



As mentioned above the centre of gravity (CoG) on Concorde it critical
to it being able to maintain supersonic speeds and also fly successfully
at low speeds. The centre of lift of the aircraft, when flying at
Mach2, can move by some 6 feet. On a traditional subsonic aircraft the
control surfaces (or entire tailplane) would be moved to trim the
aircraft correctly, but on Concorde this would be unacceptable due to
the drag it would cause and also leave very little movement left to
control the aircraft.


The way the change in the centre of lift from the wings is trimmed out
on Concorde is to compensate by moving the weight distribution, or CoG,
by pumping fuel from the forward trim tanks to the rear trim tanks and
vice versa. The trim tanks make up around 33 tons of fuel that can be
moved around the aircraft. (the main tanks hold 95 tons).




Before take off and during the acceleration through Mach1 to an eventual
Mach 2, fuel is pumped out of the forward trim tanks to the rear trim
tanks and the collector tanks in the wings. Around 20 tons of fuel is
moved in the process and results in a rearward shift of the CoG by 6ft
(2 meters.)

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At the end of the Cruise during the deceleration fuel is pumped forward
to the wing transfer and even the forward trim tanks is necessary thus
moving the CofG forward again as the centre of lift moves reward. Once
on the ground it is standard practice to then pump more fule into the
forward trim tanks to correctly balance the aircraft, so it can be
unloaded without any stability problems and the chance of it becoming a
"tailsitter"



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The Movement of fuel also provides additional benefits at lower speeds:
By making the aircraft rearward heavy during take off and landing, this
causes the elevons control surfaces to move downwards to counteract
this weight and in so doing so increases the camber of the wing
generating more lift at slower speeds. Another feature is the ability
to move fuel across the aircraft between tanks 1 and 4. This allows the
aircraft roll trim to be set without having slightly different
deflection on the elevons, which again adds drag and reduces
performance.




The full transfers on Concorde are carried out by the flight engineer
from his fuel control panel. On Concorde this is one of the most
important and time consuming jobs for the engineer. The panel allows
the engineer to set up the transfers to be carried out automatically and
stop when the relevant quantities of fuel have been moved to the
correct tanks.






The following table shows the corridor for where the center of gravity
on Concorde must be for different speed profiles.





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During flight, dynamic markers or "bugs" are shown on the Centre of
gravity displays that feature on the instrument panels. These show the
pilot what the CofG limits are for the speed the aircraft is currently
travelling at. Bugs are also shown on the airspeed indicators (Mach and
IAS) that show what speeds can be flown for the current Centre of
Gravity position.




Fuel movement diagrams and specific infomation based on an extract from
"Flying Concorde" by Brian Calvert.
CofG corridor diagram supplied by Peter Baker, former Concorde test
pilot.

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PostSubject: Re: Concorde Technical Specs   Tue May 11, 2010 12:18 am

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The "slender delta" wing on Concorde has the appearance of total
simplicity. In spite of this, there was probably no one area on the
aircraft where more attention was payed to its design and construction.


On the wing of a traditional subsonic aircraft
there may be well over 50 moveable devices, including those for control
and trim of the aircraft and the often complex flaps and leading edge
slats for the generation of additional lift at slower speeds.
Concorde has none of this; in fact the Concorde delta wing only has 6
trailing edge "elevons" that replace the
traditional elevators and ailerons that allow control of both pitch and
roll of the aircraft.


As aircraft speeds have increase over time, the
amount of "sweepback" that can be seen on the wings has also increased.
The slender delta that
features on Concorde takes this one step further. Looking head-on at
the
Concorde wing, it does not just sweep back (by 55 degrees) but it twists
and
droops, making what appears to be a very simple design in reality very
complex.


It is the intricacies of this design that allows
Concorde to generate
sufficient lift at low speeds by increasing the angle of attack of the
wing,
but also to perform very efficiently at high speeds as it generates very
little
drag.


On a traditional aircraft's wing a swirling
vortex is formed only at the wing tips.
On a delta wing at low speeds, such a vortex is formed nearly enough
along the entire wing surface and
produces most of the lift in those conditions.


With Concorde's high angle of attack at low
speeds the amount of vortex lift that is generated by the wing increases
significantly, and this is
fundamental for Concorde to be able to fly at slow speeds during take
off
and landing.


[You must be registered and logged in to see this image.]This is best illustrated on a
damp day when the vortex can be seen to fully
envelop the upper surface of the wing, when the aircraft is flying at
slow
speeds and at a high angle of attack. The picture opposite shows the
way the
vortex forms above the wing and causes the water vapour in the air to
condense, due to the reduction of pressure.


The final benefit of the large delta shape is the
ground effect that is
created when the aircraft comes in to land. As the aircraft gets closer
to
the ground, the downwash of the air between the wing and
the ground creates a cushion. Due to this air cushion, a landing on
Concorde will tend to be very smooth even though it is at a much higher
speed.


The Concorde wing is the best compromise between a
wing that provides sufficient lift at
low speeds but also has the right profile for flying at
supersonic speeds. The supersonic cruise demands a long chord,
relatively
slight thickness and short wingspan, that provide a great deal of lift
in
the high speed domain with very little drag.



During the design of the wing, over 5000 hours of
wing tunnel
testing were carried out to modify its camber, droop and twist, to
ensure that
the vortex that would be formed along the wing would be stable at high
angles
of attack.

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Strength and weight were also very important in
the design and construction of the wing. Instead of bolting and riveting
sections together, as had been done in the past,
engineers used a process called sculpture milling that starts off with a
solid piece of metal. They then used a numerically controlled milling
machine to carve
out the required shapes. The material used was copper based aluminium
alloy,
known as RR58 in the UK and AU2GN in France.


The use of this process meant the parts could be
made to much closer tolerances, and also be much stronger as there are
no welds or rivet joints which could be a possible source of weakness.
More importantly, several hundred pounds in weight were saved with no
compromise in strength.

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PostSubject: Re: Concorde Technical Specs   Tue May 11, 2010 12:19 am

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Concorde has a tricycle landing gear layout, with a nose gear and 2 main
gear. Separate from this configuration is a tail bumper gear that is
fitted to prevent any damage to the fuselage and engine nacelles, should
the aircraft suffer too high a rotation angle during take off or
landing.
Concorde's landing gear differs from those on other aircraft for several
reasons: The nose gear is situated behind the flight deck, making
taxing different to a normal aircraft and it also retracts forwards. The
Main gears shorten during the retraction process, otherwise they would
be too long to fit into the bays. Both the main and nose gears are
fitted with spray guards that prevent water being flung up and into the
engine intakes.
The main landing gear on Concorde was the first to be fitted with the
now standard Carbon Fibre brakes that are seen on all aircraft today



Main Gear


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A Hi-Res version of this diagram is available by clicking
here

Manufacturer
Messier-Dowty

Number of wheel on each bogie 4

Operation Hydraulics

Retraction directionInwards

Emergency OperationA - Hydraulically lowered by standby
system
B - Mechanical release and freefall to lock

Track 7.72m (25ft 4")

Tyre size 47X15.75-22

Tyre type Michelin NZG
Tyre pressure 232PSI
Brakes 4 X Dunlop Carbon Fibre with anti-skid system
PICTURES
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Nose Gear



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A Hi-Res version of this diagram is available by clicking
here
Manufacturer Hispano

Number of wheels 2

Operation Hydraulics

Retraction direction Forwards

Emergency OperationA - Hydraulically lowered by standby
system
B - Mechanical release and freefall to lock
Wheelbase to Main Gear18.19 m (59 ft 81/4 in)


Tyre type Dunlop (BA) Goodyear (AF)
Tyre size31X10.75-14
Tyre pressure190PSI
Brakes None
Steering Electrically signalled, Hydraulically controlled
Steering angle +/- 60 Degrees
PICTURES
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Tail Bumper Gear


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A Hi-Res version of this diagram is available by clicking
here
Number of wheel 2
Operation Hydraulics
Retraction direction Rearwards
Emergency Operation None
Tyre size 3.2X120-4.5-14
Tyre pressure 294PSI
Brakes None
PICTURES
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Normal Landing Gear Operation




Normal operation of Concorde's landing gear is achieved though
electronic control, which is signalled to the green hydraulic system by
operation of the 3 position landing gear lever. When in Neutral the
electrical and hydraulic control of the gear is removed and it is help
in place (either up or down) by its locks.

A spring loaded guard is fitted to prevent inadvertant gear down
selection. A Gear O/Ride button is available to mechanically disengage
the safety baulk that stops accidental operation of the gear handle.
The zig zag pattern shows that it is in operation.


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There are 4 movements that can be made on the gear lever:
1 Neutral To UP - Normally the gear would be in the locked down
position, so moving the lever in this direction would apply electrical
power and hydraulics and raise the gear through process that is found
later on in this section.
2 Up to Neutral - After the gear is up and locked the lever is
moved back to the neutral position. This removed power from the gear
and leaves the door actuator jacks only pressurised on the up side
3 Neutral to Down - From the gear and doors being locked up,
electrical and hydraulics are connected and the gear is lowered using
the procedure that is again detailed later on.
4. Down to Neutral - with the gear locked down and the primary
doors are re-closed, electrical and hydraulic power is once again
removed from the system.

[You must be registered and logged in to see this image.]The landing gear normal annunciator panel has 3 levels of
lights

The top YELLOW row signifies the 3 locks that are either released
or closed during the process of landing gear operation. The shortening
locks (LH SHORT / RH SHORT) on the main gears when they lengthen and
lock down along with the upper locks to lock the main and front gear in
place in the landing gear bays.
The RED centre row indicates the gear doors are open or that the
tail gear is in motion.
The bottom GREEN row are the standard "Down and Locked"
indicators from from left to right the Left Main, Nose, Tail and Right
Main gears.

Normal Gear UP Process



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When the landing gear is locked up, setting the landing gear lever from
neutral to up pressurizes the door jacks only on the up side.
When the left shock absorber becomes uncompressed at take off this
allows the system to operate when the gear lever is moved to the up
position.

    The Primary Doors unlock and open
    The system logic confirms that :

    • All 4 doors are open
    • The nose wheel has been aligned
    • 2 main gear bogies are perpendicular

    Hydraulic power is applied to the main landing gear shortening locks
    Hydraulic power is applied to the landing gear actuating cylinder
    The system gets confirmation that the gear has fully retraced and the
    uplocks have engaged
    Doors close and lock
    Gear selector is moved to Neutral
    Electrical power is removed
    Hydraulics are isolated when the visor is locked up

The whole process take about 12 seconds, the events overlap but roughly
take the following times: Door opening 2 seconds, Gear retract 8
seconds, Door closing 8 seconds


An additional indicator panel was fitted to BA aircraft on the Flight
Engineers panel to show retraction faults.


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Normal Gear DOWN Process



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The following process occur during the normal DOWN operation of the
landing gear

    Hydraulics are available to the gear when the visor moved down
    Gear selector is moved to Down
    Electrical power is available
    The Primary Doors unlock and open
    The system gets confirmation that the gear doors are fully open
    Hydraulic power is applied to the main landing gear shortening locks
    Hydraulic power is applied to the landing gear actuating cylinder
    Short Locks Lock down
    Gear down locks engage
    Primary Doors close and lock
    Gear selector is moved to Neutral
    Electrical and Hydraulic power removed from system






Thanks to Peter Baker for the Drawings

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PostSubject: Re: Concorde Technical Specs   Tue May 11, 2010 12:22 am

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The Concorde 'B' model, although never put into production, was first
discussed only 4 months after the start of scheduled services in 1976.
At that date Jacques Mitterrand, Chairman and Managing Director of
Aerospatiale, submitted to Mr. Cavaille, French Secretary of State to
Transport, a proposal to investigate an improved version of Concorde -
the "Version B". A similar letter was sent to the British government.
The letter he sent elaborated on the quality of the work carried out and
the know-how that had been acquired by the four French and British
engineering companies (Aerospatiale, BAe, Rolls Royce and SNECMA). He
also stressed the importance of the role that the manufacturers of
Concorde could have in the development of a second-generation supersonic
aircraft, that would be foreseeable in the 1990's, probably in the form
of a collaboration between Europe and the United States.
The letter also gave the official go ahead to an exploratory study
(which actually was already underway) on upgrading the capabilities of
the current Concorde design in the early 80's, and proposed a
feasibility study on this topic.
This study had a double aim:

  • To ensure expansion of the demand for supersonic transport, where
    the Anglo-French project was the main and presently only player,
  • To maintain the high knowledge level gained by the
    manufacturers and provide a solid position for the participation in a
    future program of a second-generation SST.

The suggested feasibility study, with a cost estimated at 9 million
French francs, was to last 9 months and to comprise three areas:

  • Engineering
  • Development costs
  • Markets

If this study confirmed an economic interest for the manufacturers,
and led to the decision of the launch of an improved version of
Concorde, such an improved version (allowing for a 5 year development
programme) could be ready by spring 1982 for the 17th production
Concorde.

The history of civil aviation shows that almost all new aircraft
constituted a base point for the start of improved versions (e.g., the
Boeing 747-100 evolved into today's 747-400).
The interest in this development process would have been beneficial to
both the airlines and the manufacturers:

  • For the airlines, it would have offered performance improvements
    (lower direct operation costs, extension of the operating range,
    reduction of environmental effects) while conserving the existing
    investments in crew training, maintenance procedures, etc.
  • For the manufacturers, it would have made it possible to carry
    out these improvements at a minimum capital cost. Indeed the
    development of the initial production version generally revealed
    aerodynamic areas where gains could be made along with structural
    margins, but these could not be exploited due to the time constraints in
    getting Concorde into passenger service successfully.

  • If the decision to build the B model would have been taken, the
    modifications would have been relatively inexpensive as they were just
    some minor changes to the existing production process, allowing the
    majority of the tooling to be maintained. The high level of knowledge
    that was gained during the certification of the current model would have
    greatly reduced time and costs during the certification of the B model.

These considerations should have applied particularly to the case of
Concorde, considering the exceptional degree of innovation obtained and
the great amount of technical knowledge accumulated during the twelve
years of development of the initial production version.
The broad objectives of the B version were to ensure the expansion of
the network of routes that supersonic aircraft could use.
The following improvements were considered to be necessary:
Reduction of the harmful acoustic effect on the airport environment:
Although the level of noise produced by Concorde at takeoff and landing
is equivalent to that of the first generation long haul aircraft in
service (B 707, DC8), only the second generation of long haul aircraft
(B747, DC10, L1011) equipped with high-bypass jet engines satisfied the
new international noise rules. With the reaction of the United States,
which had at the start of scheduled Concorde services not accepted the
use of Concorde on their territory, it would be important to reduce the
level of noise generated by the aircraft.
Increase in the operating range
The operating range of the initial version - primarily designed for the
connection Paris London-New York - was to be increased to allow
connections of the type:
Other European capital cities - East Coast of the US in one sector.
United States - Japan in two sectors.
Europe - Australia in three sectors.

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Click route maps for
larger versions


Reduction of the fuel consumption
Concorde's fuel consumption accounts for a third of the direct operating
cost (DOC). A reduction in fuel consumption would mean an improvement
in economics for the airlines using the aircraft, making it even more
marketable by the manufacturers, and also enable the airlines to reduce
ticket prices.
Aerodynamic improvements


The objective of noise reduction implies an increase in the smoothness
of flight during takeoff and landing, which also results in an
improvement in all subsonic flight modes (climb, subsonic cruise,
approach). This would also help in the above objective of increasing the
operating range.
This modification must respect two constraints: to preserve - if not
improve - the supersonic smoothness of flight, and to limit the effects
from modifications or additions on the central core structure of the
wing, in order to re-use the majority of the tooling currently used in
manufacture and assembly.
A moderate increase in the range could be obtained by
aerodynamic tweaks to the current design. These included lengthening
the wing tips and mounting droop slats on the leading edges of the
wings. These tweaks would reduce the induced drag at supersonic speeds
and increase the available lift at slower speeds.

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The additional lift generated by the leading edge droops would permit
the aircraft the fly at a lower angle of attack at slower speeds,
therefore requiring less power to be generated by the powerplant, which
in turn would reduce noise and increase fuel efficiency.
Optimisation of twist and camber of the wing, combined with the increase
in the lift coefficient (Cz) along with the increased thrust offered by
the supersonic engine also allows improvements of the smoothness of
flight at Mach 2.
Detailed aerodynamic improvements, (reshaped trailing edge of the
control surfaces and thinning of the lower lips of air intake) which
were later applied to the current production models before they entered
service, were also proposed to be continued on the Concorde 'B'.
The gains through the new aerodynamics and additional features are
summarised in the following table


CL LIFT / DRAG RATIO CL/CD



A MODEL B MODEL GAIN
TAKE OFF ZERO CLIMB GRADIENT 0.77 3.94 4.24 7.6%

SECOND SEGMENT 0.614 4.97 5.58 12.3%

NOISE ABATEMENT PROCEDURE 0.48 6 7.38 23%
APPROACH 0.6 4.35 4.75 9.2%
HOLD AT 250KTS, 10,000FT 0.28 9.27 13.1 41.3%
SUBSONIC CRUISE AT M=0.93 0.02 11.47 12.92 12.6%
SUPERSONIC CRUISE 610 ENGINE 0.125 7.14
7.7%

610 + 25% ENGINE 0.152
7.69 7.7%


Modifications of the propulsion unit
The majority of the noise produced by Concorde on takeoff and
landing comes
from the area of strong aerodynamic shearing located at the edge of
the exhaust.
The engine, which is optimised for supersonic cruise rather than
subsonic flight
would be modified so that gains could be made throughout the whole
speed range
and specifically gains could be made in fuel consumption in the
transonic region,
thus giving an increase in the operating range required.

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Physically, the modification consists of replacing the low-pressure
compressor by a compressor with increased diameter and the low pressure
turbine assembly by a two-stage turbine. The installation of a discharge
system to increase the margin of air flow through the engine would
result in an increase in air flow which reaches 25 % on takeoff and 35 %
during approach. The thrust gains obtained at takeoff and at transonic
speeds also make it possible to remove the reheat (afterburner) system
with its very heavy fuel consumption and significant addition to the
noise generated by the powerplant.
To lessen the jet noise on takeoff and approach, another improvement is
made by installing acoustic processing in the air intake and the
ejector. The gains of air flow and specific fuel consumptions obtained
are summarized in the next table





IMPROVEMENTS
KEY POINT
THRUST
GAIN
FUEL
CONSUMPTION
AIR FLOW
1 M = 2.0 at 57,000ft 12.30% 2.80% 20%
2 M = 1.7 at 48,000ft 16.60% 3.90% 20%
3 M = 1.7 at 43,000ft 2.80% 18.10% 20%
4 M = 1.2 at 40,000ft 3.00% 24.90% 29%
5 M = 0.78 at 19,000ft 25.90% 5.80% 29%
6 250kts at 15,000ft FIXED THRUST 4.90% -
7 200kts at 1,000ft FIXED THRUST 5.20% -
8 M = 0.93 at 25,000ft FIXED THRUST 3.30% -

TAKE OFF AND INITIAL FLIGHT FIXED THRUST - 29%

APPROACH FIXED THRUST - 39%


Modifications of the fuel tanks
The increase of capacity obtained by the enlarging of the external wing
and the tank at the front of the wing is supplemented by the addition of
a fuselage tank connected to the latter. The drawing shows the modified
tanks and additional tank areas


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The maximum quantity of fuel that can be put on board increases from
95,254 kg to 99,790 kg.
Modifications of aircraft systems
Changes would have been incorporated in the autopilot system for the
takeoff and approach stages, in order to automatically optimise the
aircraft in these key stages of flight and to reduce the noise levels
around the airports during takeoff and landing.


Aircraft weight and performance

The additional wing area along with the modifications to the
engines and intakes would add to the empty weight of the aircraft:

Concorde A and Olympus 610 engine 78000
kg
Modifications to aircraft structure
+ 1855 kg
Modifications engine and nacelle + 5098 kg
Reductions -1088 kg
Additional margin + 485 kg MV
Concorde B and Olympus 610 + 25 %
84300 kg



The reductions would have been obtained mainly by the use of carbon
fibre in the construction of control surfaces, service doors, etc.

The increase in the empty weight and the fuel carrying capability also
requires an increase in the various performance characteristics (a
payload of 24,800lbs/11260kg is used):




Concorde AConcorde B
Empty Operating Weight (t)7884.3
Zero Fuel Weight (t) 9297.5
Maximum Landing Weight (t) 111115.6
Maximum Takeoff Weight (t) 181.4
185.9
Fuel Consumption (kg) 78.9 77.7
Range (miles)
3,690
4,079
Airport Noise (EPN dB)
Takeoff 119,5 109
Landing 116,7 109



As the manufacturers were having great difficulty in selling the 5
remaining
Concordes at the end of the initial production run of 16 aircraft, the
B spec
modifications that would have been applied from production aircraft
number 17
onwards never materialised. If the additional range and performance
had been
available many more airlines might have purchased Concorde and air
travel as we
know it today might have been completely different.
Over the years, since the introduction of Concorde by the
airlines, small changes
to the aerodynamics of the original model's specs along with
operational improvements
have enabled the range of the aircraft to be increased to near 4,500
miles. It regularly flies
the 4,250 mile trip to Barbados from London with a maximum takeoff
weight that is now very close to the figure estimated for the B model.
The load
carried is only 80 passengers, but this is because with Barbados being
a holiday
destination the passengers prefer to carry more luggage ... and pay
that little
bit extra!
If the B model had been built, the range of Concorde today could
have been pushing
5000 miles, as well as benefiting from the increased subsonic
performance and reduced
noise emissions.

The technical knowledge acquired with Concorde without doubt contributed
enormously to the commercial success of the European Airbus family and
their derived versions, putting an end to the American monopoly in this
area that had been present in civil aviation since the 1960's.

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PostSubject: Re: Concorde Technical Specs   Tue May 11, 2010 12:24 am

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Airworthiness Directives



The following directives were issued to the Airlines and Concordes
manufactures by the CAA and DGAC on September 5th 2001:

  • The fitment of Kevlar lining to key fuel tanks ­ this will reduce
    the flow of fuel from any leak which may occur, which together with the
    removal of electrical ignition sources will make sustained fire
    impossible.
  • The use of the new Michelin Near Zero Growth (NZG) tyres on
    all eight main wheels - these tyres are designed to be more resilient
    to damage by foreign objects and only in extreme cases can smaller,
    lighter tread pieces be released, giving a much lower level of energy on
    impact than that which occurred at Gonesse.
  • The armouring of electrical wiring in the undercarriage bay
    - the investigators believe that the fire may have been ignited by an
    electrical spark in the undercarriage bay, and that protecting this area
    eliminates that risk.
  • The water deflector retention cable must (if fitted) be
    removed and there is a slight reprofiling of the deflector to
    accommodate the new tyre.
  • The antiskid protocols are changed. This is necessary
    because of the tyre change. (The anti-skid system is common to most
    airliners. If an aircraft is about to skid it automatically releases the
    brakes, for a short time, to prevent a skid developing.)
  • The flat tyre detection and warning system must be working
    on departure.
  • The electrical power to the brake cooling fans is switched
    off before take off and landing.




MODIFICATIONS TO CONCORDE





It was decided that the main cause of the accident was the ignition of
the kerosene flowing from a massive rupture in a fuel tank caused by
debris hitting the underside of the tank. After researching the
possibilities for shielding the tanks the best source of protection was
found to be lining the insides of certain tanks with kevlar-rubber
panels.
These such panels (although not containing kevlar) were used on wartime
Fighter aircraft protected their fuel tanks with a layer of rubber
mounted on the inside of all the surfaces of the tanks, thus when
bullets pierced the tanks, the rubber allowed the bullets through but
then sealed the holes behind them, therefore preventing fuel from
pouring out.

After the completion of the tests by an Air France Concorde (F-BVFB) at
the Flight test centre (CEV) of Istres it was decided that these panels
be fitted to Tanks 5 and 8 and to parts of tanks1,4,6 and 7 which would
be susceptible to tyre debris damage from the Landing gear. These are
shown in red on the diagram below. The liners are designed to reduced
the flow rate due to any tank rupture to around 0.5 litres/sec. The
rupture that caused the Paris accident was allowing fule to escape at
around 100L/sec


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[You must be registered and logged in to see this image.]Over 100 custom built liners are fitted into each aircraft a
short distance above the tank base between the wing ribs. The liners
for each aircraft have also had to be different as each individual
Concorde was effectively hand built. Initially it was thought that a
standard kit could be designed for each aircraft that could be modified,
but the liners proved so strong that they had to be sent back to the
manufacturer when alterations were required.
These panels are fitted individually into the tanks and then sealed
together to give a fuel tight seal. The Kevlar-rubber panels have been
designed to match the density of the fuel (O.792). The installation of
these panels would displace some fuel, thus reducing very slightly the
overall range of the aircraft, but should not significantly alter the
centre of gravity and balance calculations.

The centre of gravity of Concorde is of uppermost importance as it is
the main method of trimming the aircraft for minimum drag during
supersonic flight. Another important factor that had to be considered
was that the fuel is used to cool the airframe and so must still be able
to circulate fully on top of and also under the liners.
The liners have small holes in them that allow the fuel to circulate
both above and below the liners. The hole size is a compromise to allow
the fuel to circulate correctly but also not cause any significant flow
should a tank be ruptured. Test were carried out on a BA owned
Rolls-Royce Olympus engine to confirm that the maximum expected flow
rate of 0.5L/sec would not have any significant or adverse effect on the
engine while running.

These modifications were prototyped on British Airways Concorde G-BOAF.
Flight tests took place on this aircraft to prove effectiveness of the
modifications and more importantly that they would have no adverse
effect on the aircraft and its systems.

On the very first verification first flight, the potential
problems the liners could have caused with fuel cooling, heat
distribution in the fuel, fuel flow between tanks, fuel flow into the
engines and the aircraft's centre of gravity, were not seen. On
subsequent tests the results were confirmed paving the way for other
aircraft in both the BA and Air France fleets to go though the
multi-million pound modification programme.




[You must be registered and logged in to see this image.]There are other modifications which were also fitted:
These include the fitting of the New Michelin NZG tyres (See below)
along with armour plating for the cabling and hydraulics running through
the main gear bays.

The normal operating procedures will be changed so that the 115V supply
to the carbon brake cooling fans is deactivated during the takeoff run.
It is felt that a short in this supply could have ignited the leaking
fuel. These fans can then be turned back on once the undercarriage has
been retraced to fully cool the brakes.


BA's Cabin Interior Upgrade



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British Airways will also refit their cabin interiors at a cost of £2
Million UK per aircraft. These changes, which were planned before the
fleet was grounded, include New seats, New washrooms, Interior design
and tableware.
Interior experts Conran & Partners led by Sir Terence Conran advised
on colours, fabrics and accessories working with London based
consultancy Factory Design, the British Airways' Design and Brand
Management teams and Britax Aircraft Interior Systems of Camberley,
Surrey.
The Key features of the interior upgrade include:


  • New seats: In ink-blue Connolly leather and fabric with a
    cradle mechanism,
    footrest and contoured headrest for more comfort and support,
    the new seats are
    designed by London based agency Factory Design working with
    Britax-Contour
    Aircraft Interior Systems. The design is inspired by the
    classic Charles & Ray
    Eames chairs, and uses new technology and materials that are
    20 per cent lighter.

    The seats are constructed in carbon fibre, titanium, aluminium and
    covered in Connolly leather
  • New interiors: Much lighter and brighter with
    different lighting filters to give a
    fresher look which changes to a cool blue 'wave' throughout
    the cabin when
    Concorde flies through the sound barrier at Mach One
    (675mph).
  • New washrooms: New more spacious washrooms in aqua
    green and stainless
    steel with opaque wall panels that are uplit and downlit, to
    give a sense of more
    space. Linen towels and toiletries from Kiehls complement the
    style.
  • New Galleys: New lighter and more efficent gallerys
    will be fitted to the aircraft. The gallleys, both at the front and
    rear of the aircraft, will feature a 'Stanless Steel look' similar to
    that found in restaurant kitchens
  • New Machmeter: Improved Machmeters will be installed to
    replaced the marrilite displays that have been a feature of the aircraft
    for many years. The stylish new display will fit in with the ultra
    modern feel that the new overall look will provide, but also still give
    the information that the passgengers want to have their picture taken
    next to.


These new interiors will take advantage in using modern technologies
which will result in a weight saving of 400Kg. This saving largely
off-sets the additional weight being added to the fuel tanks by the
Kevlar-rubber liners and means that Concorde can continue to operate at
the range and capacity it enjoys at present, although the main saving is
through the use of the new tyres which are 20Kgs lighter each.


Air France are understood to be considering a cabin upgrade to replace
the interiors that were installed many years ago to upgrade the seating
that was originally fitted to the aircraft when they were delivered in
the 1970's

MICHELIN NZG TYRES
[You must be registered and logged in to see this image.]At EADS' request, Michelin was developed a
new tire technology for Concorde and other new aircraft such as the
Airbus A340-600 and A380 'Super-Jumbo', the tyre had been in development
at the time of last years crash(since 1999), but work was subsequently
speeded up.

In the weeks that followed the tragic Concorde accident, EADS
contacted
tyre manufacturers across the world, including Michelin, to find out if
any
research was under way to improve the resistance of tires to damage by
foreign
objects. Michelin unveiled its last innovation of radial technology: the
radial NZG.

This new aircraft tire technology, christened NZG for "Near Zero
Growth",
uses a high-modulus reinforcement material. This offers higher damage
resistance and substantial weight gains, two key qualities in the field
of
aviation.

" We think that this new tire will be a significant element for the
process of re-certification of Concorde ", declared Pierre Desmarets,
general manager of aviation activity at Michelin.
These tires were tested on an Air France Concorde (F-BTSD), again at
Istres the military test base in the Rhone delta region of France,
during a series of ground and flight tests that took place in May 2001.






MICHELIN NZG TYRE SPECS
External Diameter
110cm
Width
40cm

Weight
80kg

Tread
4 Groves
Pressure
16 Bar
Max Speed
280MPH
No. per Aircraft
8

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is
Advisor


Posts : 1274
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Location : CGK

PostSubject: Re: Concorde Technical Specs   Tue May 11, 2010 6:04 am

excellent...... goodz
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Antonov1210
Aviation Technician


Posts : 429
Join date : 2009-09-16
Location : BDO

PostSubject: Re: Concorde Technical Specs   Tue May 11, 2010 8:17 am

mantaps om momod.... nice info...

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jendralkapal
Senior Diecast Aviator
Senior Diecast Aviator


Posts : 353
Join date : 2010-04-30
Location : Indonesia

PostSubject: Re: Concorde Technical Specs   Wed Dec 15, 2010 4:46 pm

Om FE, ulasan yang benar2 lengkap... Perfect!!!
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Fly Emirates
Moderator


Posts : 1739
Join date : 2009-09-17
Location : Bandung

PostSubject: Re: Concorde Technical Specs   Thu Dec 16, 2010 4:03 pm

Dapet copas juga kok om...hehehe...

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RemyLC
Sophomore Diecast Aviator
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Posts : 285
Join date : 2010-06-30
Location : MH

PostSubject: Re: Concorde Technical Specs   Wed Jan 05, 2011 12:08 pm

Om Hans : Very details info mengenai Concorde... Good... goodz goodz goodz
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PostSubject: Re: Concorde Technical Specs   Wed Jan 05, 2011 1:15 pm

Kupas habis......Sip..Sip.....
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Fly Emirates
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PostSubject: Re: Concorde Technical Specs   Fri Jan 07, 2011 10:57 am

kupas apel malang.... bigsmile

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PostSubject: Re: Concorde Technical Specs   Thu Jan 05, 2012 3:53 pm









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pesawatnomer1
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Posts : 793
Join date : 2010-04-23

PostSubject: Re: Concorde Technical Specs   Fri Jan 06, 2012 9:27 pm

Garuda blomm sempet pake udah keburu pensiun ya... goodz rolleyes
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PostSubject: Re: Concorde Technical Specs   Sat Jan 07, 2012 5:54 am

pesawatnomer1 wrote:
Garuda blomm sempet pake udah keburu pensiun ya...

Bener banget Om Asri.....semoga aja diterjadi pada Boeing 777....
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PostSubject: Re: Concorde Technical Specs   Today at 2:51 am

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Concorde Technical Specs
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