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 Runway (RWY)

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PostSubject: Runway (RWY)   Tue Feb 09, 2010 12:46 am

Runway


A runway (RWY) is a strip of land at an [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] on which [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] can [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] and [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] and forms part of the [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]. Runways may be a man-made surface (often [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], or a mixture of both) or a natural surface ([You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], or [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]).
By extension, the term has also come to mean any long, flat, straight area, such as that used in [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.].

[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.][You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

Runway at [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]


[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

Runways are given a number between 01 and 36. This indicates the runway's [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]:
A runway with the number 36 points to the north (360°), runway 09
points east (90°), runway 18 is south (180°), and runway 27 points west
(270°). Thus, the runway number is one tenth of the runway centerline's
magnetic [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], measured clockwise from the [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.].
A runway can be used in two directions, which means the runway has
two names: "runway 33" and "runway 15". The two numbers always differ
by 18 (= 180°).[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.][You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

Runway 31R/13L


Runways in [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] that lie within the [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] are, because of the magnetic north pole, usually numbered according to [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.].[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
For clarity in radio communications, each digit is pronounced
individually: runway three six, runway one four, etc. A leading zero,
for example in "runway zero six" or "runway zero one left", is included
for [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] (ICAO) and some [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] airports (such as [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]). However in the [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] at most [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
airports, the leading zero is often dropped: "runway nine" or "runway
four right". This also includes some military airfields such as [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.].
This American anomaly may lead to inconsistencies in conversations
between American pilots and controllers in other countries. It is very
common in a country such as [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
for a controller to clear an incoming American aircraft to, for
example, Runway 04, and the pilot read back the clearance as Runway 4.
In [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] those of American origin might apply U.S. usage to airports around the world. For example


[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
Runway 05 at [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] will appear on the program as the single digit 5 rather than 05.[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] in [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]. The runway is 08



Runway designations change over time because the magnetic poles slowly drift on the Earth's surface and the [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
will change. Depending on the airport location and how much drift takes
place, it may be necessary over time to change the runway designation.
As runways are designated with headings rounded to the nearest 10
degrees, this will affect some runways more than others. For example,
if the magnetic heading of a runway is 233 degrees, it would be
designated Runway 23. If the magnetic heading changed downwards by 5
degrees, the Runway would still be Runway 23. If on the other hand the
original magnetic heading was 226 (Runway 23), and the heading
decreased by only 2 degrees to 224, the runway should become Runway 22.
Because the drift itself is quite slow, runway designation changes are
uncommon, and not welcomed, as they require an accompanying change in [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] and descriptive documents. When runway designations do change, especially at major airports, it is often changed overnight as [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
signs need to be changed and the huge numbers at each end of the runway
need to be repainted to the new runway designators. In July 2009 for
example, [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] in the [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] changed its runway designations from 05/23 to 04/22 overnight.
If there is more than one runway pointing in the same direction
(parallel runways), each runway is identified by appending Left (L),
Center (C) and Right (R) to the number — for example, Runways One Five
Left (15L), One Five Center (15C), and One Five Right (15R). Runway
Zero Three Left (03L) becomes Runway Two One Right (21R) when used in
the opposite direction (derived from adding 18 to the original number
for the 180 degrees when approaching from the opposite direction).
At large airports with more than three parallel runways (for example, at [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], and [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]),
some runway identifiers are shifted by 10 degrees to avoid the
ambiguity that would result with more than three parallel runways. For
example, in Los Angeles, this system results in Runways 6L, 6R, 7L, and
7R, even though all four runways are exactly parallel (approximately 69
degrees). At [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], there are five parallel runways, named 17L, 17C, 17R, 18L, and 18R, all oriented at a heading of 175.4 degrees.
For [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] it is advantageous to perform take-offs and landings into the wind to reduce takeoff roll and reduce the [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] needed to attain [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.].
Larger airports usually have several runways in different directions,
so that one can be selected that is most nearly aligned with the wind.
Airports with one runway are often constructed to be aligned with the [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.].
Runway dimensions vary from as small as 245 m (804 ft) long and 8 m (26 ft) wide in smaller [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] airports, to 5,500 m (18,045 ft) long and 80 m (262 ft) wide at large [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] built to accommodate the largest [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], to the huge 11,917 m (39,098 ft) x 274 m (899 ft) lake bed runway 17/35 at [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] in California - a landing site for the [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.].[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

Placement and grouping

Two runways pointing in the same direction are classed as dual or
parallel runways depending on the separation distance. In some
countries, flight rules mandate that only one runway may be used at a
time under certain conditions (usually adverse [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]) if the parallel runways are too close to each other.

Declared distances

TORA [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]Takeoff Run Available - The length of runway declared available and suitable for the ground run of an airplane taking off.[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
TODA [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]Takeoff [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] Available - The length of the takeoff run available plus the length of the [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], if clearway is provided.[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
(The clearway length allowed must lie within the aerodrome or airport boundary. According to the [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] and [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] (JAR) TODA is the lesser of TORA plus clearway or 1.5 times TORA).
ASDA [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]Accelerate-Stop Distance Available - The length of the takeoff run available plus the length of the stopway, if stopway is provided.[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
LDA [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]Landing Distance Available - The length of runway which is declared available and suitable for the ground run of an airplane landing.[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
EDA[[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]]Emergency Distance Available - LDA (or TORA) plus a stopway.

Sections of a runway


[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

  • The Runway Safety Area is the cleared, smoothed and graded
    area around the paved runway. It is kept free from any obstacles that
    might impede flight or ground roll of aircraft.
  • The Runway is the surface from threshold to threshold, which
    typically features threshold markings, numbers, centerlines, but not
    overrun areas at both ends.
  • [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], also known as overrun areas or stopways, are often constructed just before the start of a runway where [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
    produced by large planes during the takeoff roll could otherwise erode
    the ground and eventually damage the runway. Overrun areas are also
    constructed at the end of runways as emergency space to slowly stop
    planes that overrun the runway on a landing gone wrong, or to slowly
    stop a plane on a [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
    or a take-off gone wrong. Blast pads are often not as strong as the
    main paved surface of the runway and are marked with yellow [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]. Planes are not allowed to [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], take-off or land on blast pads, except in an emergency.

[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

  • Displaced thresholds may be used for taxiing, takeoff, and landing rollout, but not for touchdown. A [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
    often exists because obstacles just before the runway, runway strength,
    or noise restrictions may make the beginning section of runway
    unsuitable for landings. It is marked with white paint arrows that lead
    up to the beginning of the landing portion of the runway.

[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

Runway lighting

History

The first runway lighting appeared in 1930 at [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] (now known as Cleveland Hopkins International Airport) in [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.].[[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]].
A line of lights on an airfield or elsewhere to guide aircraft in
taking off or coming in to land or an illuminated runway is sometimes
also known as a flare path.

Technical specifications

Runway lighting is used at airports which allow night landings. Seen from the air, runway lights form an outline of the runway.[[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]] A particular runway may have some or all of the following.

  • [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] (REIL[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.])
    – unidirectional (facing approach direction) or omnidirectional pair of
    synchronized flashing lights installed at the runway threshold, one on
    each side.


  • Runway end lights – a pair of four lights on each side of
    the runway on precision instrument runways, these lights extend along
    the full width of the runway. These lights show green when viewed by
    approaching aircraft and red when seen from the runway.[[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]]


  • [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
    – white elevated lights that run the length of the runway on either
    side. On precision instrument runways, the edge-lighting becomes yellow
    in the last 2,000 ft (610 m) of the runway. Taxiways are differentiated
    by being bordered by blue lights, or by having green centre lights,
    depending on the width of the taxiway, and the complexity of the taxi
    pattern.[[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]]


  • Runway Centerline Lighting System (RCLS[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.])
    – lights embedded into the surface of the runway at 50 ft (15 m)
    intervals along the runway centerline on some precision instrument
    runways. White except the last 3,000 ft (914 m), alternate white and
    red for next 2,000 ft (610 m) and red for last 1,000 ft (305 m).[[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]]


  • Touchdown Zone Lights (TDZL[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.])
    – rows of white light bars (with three in each row) on either side of
    the centerline over the first 3,000 ft (914 m) (or to the midpoint,
    whichever is less) of the runway.[[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]]


  • Taxiway Centerline Lead-Off Lights – installed along
    lead-off markings, alternate green and yellow lights embedded into the
    runway pavement. It starts with green light about runway centerline to
    the position of first centerline light beyond holding position on
    taxiway.[[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]]


  • Taxiway Centerline Lead-On Lights – installed the same way as taxiway centerline lead-off Lights.


  • Land and Hold Short Lights – a row of white pulsating lights
    installed across the runway to indicate hold short position on some
    runways which are facilitating [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] (LAHSO).[[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]]


  • [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] (ALS[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]) – a lighting system installed on the approach end of an airport runway and consists of a series of lightbars, [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], or a combination of the two that extends outward from the runway end.[[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]]

According to [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]'s regulations,[[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]] the runway-edge lighting must be visible for at least 2 mi (3 km). Additionally, a new system of advisory lighting, [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], is currently being tested in the United States.[[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]]
The edge lights must be arranged such that:

  • the minimum distance between lines is 75 ft (23 m), and maximum is 200 ft (61 m);
  • the maximum distance between lights within each line is 200 ft (61 m);
  • the minimum length of parallel lines is 1,400 ft (427 m);
  • the minimum number of lights in the line is 8.[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

Control of Lighting System Typically the lights are controlled by a [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], a [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] or another designated authority.[[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]] Some airports/airfields (particularly [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]) are equipped with [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], so that pilots can temporarily turn on the lights when the relevant authority is not available.[[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]]
This avoids the need for automatic systems or staff to turn the lights
on at night or in other low visibility situations. This also avoids the
cost of having the lighting system on for extended periods. Smaller
airports may not have lighted runways or runway markings. Particularly
at private airfields for light planes, there may be nothing more than a
[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] beside a landing strip.

Runway markings


There are runway markings and signs on any runway. Larger runways
have a distance remaining sign (black box with white numbers). This
sign uses a single number to indicate the thousands of feet remaining,
so 7 will indicate 7,000 ft (2,134 m) remaining. The runway threshold
is marked by a line of green lights.

[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
There are three types of runways:

  • visual Runways are used at small airstrips and are usually just a
    strip of grass, gravel, asphalt or concrete. Although there are usually
    no markings on a visual runway, they may have threshold markings,
    designators, and centerlines. Additionally, they do not provide an
    instrument-based landing procedure; pilots must be able to see the
    runway to use it. Also, radio communication may not be available and
    pilots must be self-reliant.
  • non-precision instrument runways are often used at small- to
    medium-size airports. These runways, depending on the surface, may be
    marked with threshold markings, designators, centerlines, and sometimes
    a 1,000 ft (305 m) mark (known as an aiming point, sometimes installed
    at 1,500 ft (457 m)). They provide horizontal position guidance to
    planes on instrument approach via [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] (NDB), [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] (VOR), [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], etc.
  • precision instrument runways, which are found at medium- and
    large-size airports, consist of a blast pad/stopway (optional, for
    airports handling jets), threshold, designator, centerline, aiming
    point, and 500 ft (152 m), 1,000 ft (305 m)/1,500 ft (457 m), 2,000 ft
    (610 m), 2,500 ft (762 m), and 3,000 ft (914 m) touchdown zone marks.
    Precision runways provide both horizontal and vertical guidance for
    instrument approaches.

National variants

  • In [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], the [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.][You must be registered and logged in to see this link.],
    as well as some other countries all 3-stripe and 2-stripe touchdown
    zones for precision runways are replaced with one-stripe touchdown
    zones.
  • In Australia, precision runways consist of only an aiming point and
    one 1-stripe touchdown zone. Furthermore, many non-precision and visual
    runways lack an aiming point.
  • In some [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] countries like [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] and [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] one 3-stripe is added and a 2-stripe is replaced with the aiming point .
  • Some [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] countries replace the aiming point with a 3-stripe touchdown zone.
  • Runways in [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
    have yellow markings instead of the usual white ones. This also occurs
    on some airports in Japan. The yellow markings are used to ensure
    better contrast against snow.
  • Runways may have different types on each end. To cut costs, many
    airports do not install precision guidance equipment on both ends.
    Runways with one precision end and any other type of end can install
    the full set of touchdown zones, even if some are past the midpoint. If
    a runway has precision markings on both ends, touchdown zones within
    900 ft (274 m) of the midpoint are omitted, to avoid pilot confusion
    over which end the marking belongs to.

Runway safety

Several terms fall under the [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] topic of runway safety, including incursion, excursion, and confusion.
Runway excursion is an incident involving only a single
aircraft where it makes an inappropriate exit from the runway. This can
happen because of pilot error, poor weather, emergency, or a fault with
the aircraft.[[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]] Overrun is a type of excursion where the aircraft is unable to stop before the end of the runway. An example of such an event is [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] in 2005. Further examples can be found in the [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]. Runway excursion is the most frequent type of landing accident, slightly ahead of runway incursion.[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] For runway accidents recorded between 1995 and 2007, 96% were of the 'excursion' type.[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
Runway event is another term for a runway accident.[[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]]
[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] involves a first aircraft, as well as a second aircraft, vehicle, or person. It is defined by the U.S. [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
(FAA) as: "Any occurrence at an aerodrome involving the incorrect
presence of an aircraft, vehicle or person on the protected area of a
surface designated for the landing and take off of aircraft."[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
Runway confusion involves a single aircraft, and is used to
describe the error when the aircraft makes "the unintentional use of
the wrong runway, or a taxiway, for landing or take-off".[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
The U.S. FAA publishes an annual report on runway safety issues, available from the FAA website.[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.][You must be registered and logged in to see this link.][You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] New systems designed to improve runway safety, such as [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] (AMASS) and [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] (RAAS), are discussed in the report. AMASS prevented the serious near-collision in the [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.].
Runway condition is also an important paramater related to meterological conditions and air safety.

  • Dry: the surface of the runway is clear of water, snow or ice.
  • Damp: change of color on the surface due to moisture.
  • Wet: the surface of the runway is soaked but there is no significant patches of standing water.
  • Water patches: patches of standing water are visible.
  • Flooded: there is extensive standing water.

According to the JAR definition, a runway with water patches or that is flooded is considered to be contaminated.

Pavement
[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.][You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

Runway surface at [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] in [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]. The grooves increase friction and reduce the risk of [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.].


The choice of material used to construct the runway depends on the
use and the local ground conditions. For a major airport, where the
ground conditions permit, the most satisfactory type of pavement for
long-term minimum maintenance is [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.][[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]]. Although certain airports have used reinforcement[[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]] in concrete pavements, this is generally found to be unnecessary, with the exception of [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] across the runway where a [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
assembly, which permits relative movement of the concrete slabs, is
placed in the concrete. Where it can be anticipated that major
settlements of the runway will occur over the years because of unstable
ground conditions, it is preferable to install [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
concrete surface, as it is easier to patch on a periodic basis. For
fields with very low traffic of light planes, it is possible to use a
sod surface. Some runways also make use of salt flat runways.
For pavement designs, borings are taken to determine the subgrade condition, and based on the relative [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
of the subgrade, the specifications are established. For heavy-duty
commercial aircraft, the pavement thickness, no matter what the top
surface, varies from 10 in (250 mm) to 4 ft (1 m), including subgrade.
Airport pavements have been designed by two methods. The first, Westergaard, is based on the assumption that the pavement is an elastic plate supported on a heavy fluid base with a uniform reaction [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] known as the [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]. Experience has shown that the K values on which the formula was developed are not applicable for newer aircraft with very large footprint pressures.
The second method is called the [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
and was developed in the late 1940s. It is an extrapolation of the
original test results, which are not applicable to modern aircraft
pavements or to modern aircraft [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]. Some designs were made by a mixture of these two design theories.
A more recent method is an analytical system based on the
introduction of vehicle response as an important design parameter.
Essentially it takes into account all factors, including the traffic
conditions, service life, materials used in the construction, and,
especially important, the dynamic response of the vehicles using the
landing area.
Because airport pavement construction is so expensive, every effort
is made to minimize the stresses imparted to the pavement by aircraft.
Manufacturers of the larger planes design landing gear so that the
weight of the plane is supported on larger and more numerous tires.
Attention is also paid to the characteristics of the landing gear
itself, so that adverse effects on the pavement are minimized.
Sometimes it is possible to reinforce a pavement for higher loading by
applying an overlay of asphaltic concrete or [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] concrete that is bonded to the original slab.
Post-tensioning concrete has been developed for the runway surface.
This permits the use of thinner pavements and should result in longer
concrete pavement life. Because of the susceptibility of thinner
pavements to [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], this process is generally applicable only where there is no appreciable [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.].

Pavement surface

Runway pavement surface is prepared and maintained to maximize friction for wheel braking. To minimize [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
following heavy rain, the pavement surface is usually grooved so that
the surface water film flows into the grooves and the peaks between
grooves will still be in contact with the aircraft tires. To maintain
the macrotexturing built into the runway by the grooves, maintenance
crews engage in [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] or [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] in order to meet required FAA friction levels.

Active runway


The active runway is the runway at an airport that is in use
for takeoffs and landings. Since takeoffs and landings are usually done
as close to "into the [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]" (see [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]) as possible, wind direction generally determines the active runway (or just the active in aviation vernacular).
Selection of the active runway, however, depends on a number of
factors. At a non-towered airport, pilots usually select the runway
most nearly aligned with the wind, but they are not obliged to use that
particular runway. For example, a pilot arriving from the east may
elect to land straight in to an east-west runway despite a minor [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] or significant [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], in order to expedite his arrival, although it is recommended to always fly a regular [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] to more safely merge with other aircraft.
At controlled airports, the active is usually determined by a tower
supervisor. However, there may be constraints, such as policy from the
airport manager (calm wind runway selection, for example, or [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] guidelines) that dictate an active runway selection that is not the one most nearly aligned with the wind.
At major airports with multiple runways, the active could be any of
a number of runways. For example, when O'Hare (ORD) is landing on 27R
and 32L, departures use 27L and 32R, thus making four active runways.
When they are landing on 14R and 22R, departures use 22L and 9L, and
occasionally a third arrival runway, 14L, will be employed, bringing
the active runway count to five.
At major airports, the active runway is based on weather conditions ([You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] and [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.],
as well as wind, and runway conditions such as wet/dry or snow
covered), efficiency (ORD can land more aircraft on 14R/32L than they
can on 9L/27R), traffic demand (when a heavy departure rush is
scheduled, a runway configuration that optimizes departures vs arrivals
may be desirable), and time of day (ORD is obliged to use runway 9L/27R
during the hours of roughly midnight to 6 a.m. due to noise abatement).


Runway length


Main article: [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.][You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]

In the [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] extended their runway to take wide bodied planes by building a [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] across the [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]


A runway of at least 6,000 ft (1,829 m) in length is usually adequate for [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] weights below approximately 200,000 lb (90,718 kg). Larger aircraft including [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] will usually require at least 8,000 ft (2,438 m) at sea level and somewhat more at higher [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
airports. International widebody flights, which carry substantial
amounts of fuel and are therefore heavier, may also have landing
requirements of 10,000 ft (3,048 m) or more and takeoff requirements of
13,000 ft (3,962 m)+.
At [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], 10,000 ft (3,048 m) can be considered an adequate length to land virtually any aircraft. For example, at [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.], when landing simultaneously on 22R and 27L or parallel 27R, it is routine for arrivals from the [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
which would normally be vectored for 22R (7,500 ft (2,286 m)) or 27R
(8,000 ft (2,438 m)) to request 27L (10,000 ft (3,048 m)). It is always
accommodated, although occasionally with a delay.
An aircraft will need a longer runway at a higher altitude due to decreased [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]
of air at higher altitudes, which reduces lift and engine power. An
aircraft will also require a longer runway in hotter or more humid
conditions (see [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.]). Most commercial aircraft carry manufacturer's tables showing the adjustments required for a given temperature.


See also

[You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] (ILS)

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[You must be registered and logged in to see this image.] [You must be registered and logged in to see this image.] [You must be registered and logged in to see this image.] [You must be registered and logged in to see this image.] [You must be registered and logged in to see this image.] [You must be registered and logged in to see this image.] [You must be registered and logged in to see this image.] [You must be registered and logged in to see this image.]
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PostSubject: Re: Runway (RWY)   Tue Feb 09, 2010 5:51 am

bravo...... goodz goodz goodz goodz goodz cool goodz goodz goodz goodz goodz
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PostSubject: Re: Runway (RWY)   Tue Feb 09, 2010 5:52 am

bisa dijadiin thread khusus nih, soal airport.......
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